Fake Wasabi: What’s Really in Your Green Paste?

When it comes to Japanese cuisine, one condiment that stands out is wasabi. With its distinct green color and spicy flavor, it adds a punch to dishes like sushi and sashimi. But have you ever wondered if the wasabi you’re eating is the real deal? In this article, we’ll uncover the truth about wasabi, exploring the difference between real and fake versions, the challenges of growing authentic wasabi, and the health benefits it offers.

What is Wasabi?

Real Wasabi: A Rare Gem

Real wasabi, scientifically known as ‘Wasabia japonica’ or ‘Eutrema japonicum,’ is a spicy horseradish condiment native to Japan. Unlike fake wasabi, which is commonly served in many sushi restaurants, real wasabi is made from the rhizome of a wasabi plant, which is the underground stem part. The process involves finely grating the underground stem to create a paste. It is important to note that real wasabi belongs to the Brassicaceae family, which includes other radishes, horseradishes, and mustard plants.

Fake Wasabi: A Common Substitute

Unfortunately, most wasabi served outside of Japan is not the real thing. In fact, it is estimated that up to 99% of wasabi sold in the United States is fake, and even in Japan, around 95% of wasabi is imitation. Fake wasabi, also known as Seiko-wasabi, is made from European horseradish and is dyed green to mimic the appearance of real wasabi. These imitation products often contain only a small percentage of real wasabi, usually around 1 to 3%.

The Challenges of Growing Real Wasabi

The Elusive Wasabi Plant

Real wasabi is considered one of the most expensive crops in the world due to the challenges involved in its cultivation. The wasabi plant requires very specific growing conditions, making it rare and difficult to grow on a commercial scale. It naturally thrives in mountain river valleys in Japan, where its stems are partially submerged in running water. This unique environment is hard to replicate, limiting the availability of real wasabi.

The High Cost of Authenticity

The scarcity and labor-intensive nature of growing real wasabi contribute to its high price. It can cost as much as $300 per kilogram, making it a luxury ingredient. The cost is mainly attributed to the long cultivation time of approximately three years and the need for meticulous care to ensure the plant’s survival. Additionally, the demand for real wasabi exceeds the supply, further driving up its price.

Real vs. Fake Wasabi: Taste and Flavor

The Spicy Sensation

Real wasabi has a distinctive flavor that sets it apart from the imitation versions. When freshly grated, real wasabi offers a clean, gentle spiciness that gradually fades, providing a unique taste experience. In contrast, fake wasabi can be hot and zingy but lacks the clean, nuanced flavor of the real thing. The difference lies in the chemical compounds present in each. Real wasabi contains allyl isothiocyanate, which creates a spicy sensation, while fake wasabi relies on horseradish and mustard powder for its heat.

The Health Benefits

While both real and fake wasabi provide a spicy kick, the health benefits are primarily associated with the authentic version. Real wasabi contains isothiocyanates, which have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and immune-boosting properties. It may also help improve gut health, alleviate allergies, promote fat loss, and potentially reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. However, it’s important to note that these benefits are more pronounced when consuming real wasabi rather than fake substitutes.

The Culinary Uses of Wasabi

Beyond Sushi

Wasabi is most commonly associated with sushi and sashimi, where it is used as a condiment. Its spicy flavor pairs well with the delicate taste of raw fish. However, the culinary uses of wasabi extend beyond Japanese cuisine. It can be incorporated into various dishes, such as udon noodles, tempura, and even Western-inspired recipes like fish tacos or mayonnaise-based sauces. The versatility of real wasabi allows for creative and flavorful culinary experimentation.

Exploring Wasabi Leaves

While the rhizome of the wasabi plant is the primary focus, the entire plant is edible. The heart-shaped leaves, crisp stems, flowers, and ground stalks can all be consumed. Wasabi leaves are commonly used in pickled dishes, such as wasabi zuke, where they are mixed with salt, sugar, and sake lees. These leaves can also be added to salads or stir-fry dishes, providing a unique flavor reminiscent of the rhizome.

The Future of Wasabi Cultivation

Innovations and Secret Techniques

As the demand for real wasabi continues to rise, innovative farmers are exploring new methods to cultivate this elusive plant. Some farms, like Pacific Coast Wasabi Ltd., have developed secret greenhouse-growing techniques to overcome the challenges of traditional cultivation. These techniques are closely guarded trade secrets, allowing farmers to successfully grow real wasabi outside of Japan. However, the majority of authentic wasabi farms still remain in secret locations, making it a truly exclusive and sought-after ingredient.

Sustainable Wasabi Farming

Despite the difficulties involved, sustainability is a growing concern in the world of wasabi cultivation. With increased awareness of environmental issues, farmers are striving to implement sustainable practices to minimize their ecological footprint. From efficient water usage to organic pest control methods, these initiatives aim to protect the delicate ecosystems where the wasabi plant naturally thrives.

The Quest for Accessibility

While real wasabi remains a luxury ingredient, there are ongoing efforts to make it more accessible to a wider audience. Some companies are experimenting with freeze-dried or powdered forms of real wasabi, allowing consumers to enjoy its authentic flavor without the high price tag. Additionally, specialty stores and online platforms offer genuine wasabi products to cater to those seeking an elevated culinary experience.


The world of wasabi is a fascinating one, filled with secrets, challenges, and unique flavors. Real wasabi, though rare and expensive, offers a distinct taste experience that cannot be replicated by its imitation counterparts. From its difficult cultivation process to its health benefits and culinary versatility, real wasabi continues to captivate food enthusiasts and elevate dishes to new heights. So, the next time you indulge in sushi or explore Japanese cuisine, remember the journey that the humble wasabi plant takes to bring that spicy kick to your palate.

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